Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer among women in the UK. Treatment for cancer, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can badly affect quality of life. However, current cancer rehabilitation programmes are mainly based on psychotherapy or social support, and do not generally deal with the physical problems encountered by patients.

Researchers from Scotland set out to determine if group exercise programmes could prove beneficial to women who were having treatment for early stage breast cancer. Over 200 women took part in the study. They were split into two separate groups; the first (control group) received their usual care, whilst the second group received their usual care plus were invited to take part in a 12 week programme of exercise sessions. Participants in the second group were encouraged to attend two classes ?? led by trained exercise specialists - and undertake one additional exercise session at home each week.

Following the 12 week session, the researchers analysed the physical and psychological wellbeing of the participants by measuring a number of factors, such as levels of depression, quality of life, mood, shoulder mobility, walking distances and weekly levels of physical activity. These factors were measured after 12 weeks and six months later.

Participants in the second group had better outcomes on both a physical and psychological level than those who had not taken part in the exercise programme, both at the 12 week and six month assessments. Also, after six months those who had exercised had made fewer visits to their GP, and spent fewer nights in hospital, than the participants in the control group.

The researchers say that the benefits experienced by the women may have been caused by the exercise itself or by the group experience, or a combination of both. They conclude that clinicians should encourage activity during cancer treatment for patients, and policy makers should consider including opportunities for exercise in cancer rehabilitation services.


Willour says that although the Hopkins-led study does not pinpoint a specific gene responsible for attempted suicide, it does suggest a 'neighborhood' in which the gene might be found. She adds that the next step is to further narrow the search and find the 'address.' "Once we have located the specific gene," she says, "we can better identify people who might be at risk of suicide and offer drug companies a target for possible therapies."

The data used by Willour and her team -- DNA samples, medical histories and psychiatric evaluations -- came from an independent study, CHIP, conducted at the University of Chicago, Johns Hopkins, and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Intramural Program. The purpose of CHIP, initiated in 1988 and funded through at least 2010, is to find genes that predispose people to developing bipolar disorder or particular subtypes of the illness.

Other Johns Hopkins researchers who contributed to this study are Peter P. Zandi, Ph.D., from the Department of Mental Health in the Bloomberg School of Public Health and J. Raymond DePaulo Jr., M.D.; Dean F. MacKinnon, M.D.; and Francis M. Mondimore, M.D., from the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. Additional researchers include Elliot S. Gershon, M.D., and Judith A. Badner, M.D., Ph.D., from the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Chicago; Francis J. McMahon, M.D., from the NIMH Intramural Program; and Melvin G. McInnis, M.D., from the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Funding for this study came from the National Institute of Mental Health.